At construction and reconstruction of the cities designers seek to limit number of the cars driving in the city centers, develop new systems of street traffic control, the transport traffic jams minimizing possibility of education. It is very important because, stopping and then again gathering speed, the car throws out in air several times more harmful substances, than at uniform motion. Effective preventive actions are expansion of streets, creation between the carriageway of roads and houses of filters – walls and green plantings.
In the conditions of strong city noise there is constant tension of the acoustic analyzer. It causes increase in a threshold of audibility (10 dB for most of people with normal hearing) on 10-25 dB. Noise complicates legibility of the speech, especially at its level more than 70 dB.
There are many technical and planning methods of alignment of transport loading on the high-level network of the city. First of all, it is necessary to place evenly the main zones of application of effort and residential areas, and also vacation spots and the centers of cultural and community service. At the same time most loaded sites of a transport network can be duplicated new lines.
One of the main sources of noise – the motor transport, which intensity of the movement constantly grows in the city. The greatest noise levels of 90-95 dB are noted on the main streets of the cities with average intensity of the movement of 2-3 thousand and more transport units in an hour.
Decrease in an adverse effect of the motor transport requires carrying out from city line of cargo transit streams. The requirement it is recorded in the operating construction norms and rules, but is practically observed seldom.
The sizes of the land plots which are taken away under platforms for the parking and storage of cars and other vehicles accept (on one place): for cars – 25 sq.m, motorcycles with sidecar – 8, without carriage – 3, for bicycles – 0,9 sq.m (the specified sizes do not include the area of the land plots for the device of entrances and green plantings).
Strong harmful effect of salts is shown in corrosion of metal of cars, road cars and elements of racks of road signs and protections. Solution of chloride sodium possesses bigger aggression, than solution of chloride calcium of the same concentration.
From compounds of the metals which are a part of firm emissions of cars, compounds of lead are the most studied. It is caused by that compounds of lead, coming to a human body and warm-blooded animals with water, air and food, have on it the most harmful effect. To 50% of day intake of lead in an organism it is the share of air in which the considerable share is made by the fulfilled gases of cars.
Progressive tendency in a solution of the problem of storage of individual motor transport is the construction of multystoried cooperative garages and garages hotels. If at a single-tier way of storage (in one-storeyed garages, boxes, on open parking) on one car 25-30 sq.m of the land plot on average are required, at storage in many-tier garages – no more than 15 sq.m (together with drives, entrances, accumulative platforms and protective green plantings). The most acceptable construction type for storage of cars is the many-tier garage parking on 500-1000 parking places.
Noise in big cities reduces life expectancy of the person. According to the Austrian researchers, this reduction fluctuates within 8-12 years. Excessive noise can become the reason of nervous exhaustion, mental depression, vegetative neurosis, stomach ulcer, frustration of endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Noise prevents people to work and have a rest, reduces labor productivity.
Are most sensitive to action of noise of the person of advanced ages. So, aged till 27 years 46% of people, at the age of 28-37 years – 57%, at the age of 38-57 years – 62% react to noise, and at the age of 58 years and are more senior – 72%. The large number of complaints to noise at elderly people, is obvious, connected with age features and a condition of the central nervous system of this group of the population.